Power

coalAbout 30% of power generated in India is by private companies. India’s Ministry of Power claims that industrial demand accounted for 35% of electrical power requirement, domestic household use accounted for 28%, agriculture 21%, commercial 9%, public lighting and other miscellaneous applications accounted for the rest.

World’s producers & consumers of electricity, 2013-14

Source: International Energy Agency

Consumption
GW-hr
Watts consumed per person Production
GW-hr
China
USA
India
Japan
Russia
Germany
Canada
France
Brazil
S. Korea
5463,800
4686,400
1111,722
859,700
1016,500
582,500
499,900
462,900
455,800
455,100
458
1683
90
774
808
861
1871
804
268
1038
5649,500
4260,400
1102,900
1088,100
1069,300
633,600
626,800
568,430
557,400
534,700

India’s power installed capacity breakup

Source: Indian Ministry of Power and Ministry of New and Renewable Energy

As of 31 March 2013 Total installed capacity
(223,344 MW)
Thermal (coal, gas, diesel) 151,530
Hydro 39,491
Nuclear 4,780
Renewable (total) 27,542
Renewable (wind) *2012 14,989
Renewable (small hydro) *2012 3,154
Renewable (Biomass/ sugar bagasse) *2012 3,332
Renewal (Waste to energy) *2012 150
Renewal (Solar) *2012 119

Notes:

  • Rural electrification in India was up from 43.5% in 1991 to over 86% in 2011, according to Census of India. While 80% of Indian villages have at least an electricity line, 56% of rural households have no electricity.
  • Transmission and distribution losses amount to around 32% in 2010 (Source: International Energy Agency, France). Another source OECD, says transmission losses are 24% and losses due to theft was another 15%, compared with 3% total in China. Stolen electricity amounts to 1.5% of GDP.
  • Installed capacity was 66 GW in 1991 and 100 GW in 2001
  • Per capita consumption has grown from 15.6 kWH in 1950 to 314 kWH in the 1990’s to 700 kWH in 2012.

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coal and lignite

Source: Central Statistics Office of India

Coal production
(million tonnes)
Lignite production (million tonnes)
1970-71
1980-81
1990-91
2000-01
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2012-13
72.95
113.91
214.06
313.7
457.08
492.76
532.06
532.69
557.45
3.39
5.11
14.07
22.95
33.98
32.42
34.07
37.73

Notes:

  • Coal mining in India dates back to the 18th century.
  • India is the third largest producer of coal in the world, after USA and China.
  • As on March 2011, the estimated reserves of coal was around 286 billion tones (fourth largest in the world) and the estimated reserve of lignite was 41 billion tonnes, of which 80% was in the southern State of Tamil Nadu.
  • 70% of power generation in India is coal-based.
  • As on March 2011, a total of 52 washeries, both PSUs and Private, were operating in the country. The total installed washing capacity was 131 million tonnes (MT) per annum considering, both Coking (29.69 MTY) and Non-Coking Coal (101.55 MTY).
  • Non-coking coal reserves aggregate 85 per cent, while coking coal reserves are the remaining 15 per cent.
  • Indian coal has high ash content (15-45%) and low calorific value.

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oil refinery

The origin of the oil industry in India can be traced back to the last part of the 19th century when petroleum was discovered in Digboi in north-east India. Digboi’s Oil refinery is the oldest working refinery in the world.

2013 Crude oil consumption
(million barrels per day)
USA
China
Japan
India
Russia
Saudi Arabia
Brazil
Germany
19
10.3
4.5
3.6
3.5
3
3
2.4

Notes:

  • The estimated reserves of crude oil in India as on March 2011 stood at 757 million tonnes (MT) – twentieth largest in the world.
  • India is self-sufficient in crude oil refining. As on March 2011 there were a total of 20 refineries in the country, 17 in the Public Sector and 3 in the private sector.
  • World’s highest retail Petrol pump outlet is at 12, 001 ft. above sea level, at Leh

India’s crude oil, petroleum products and natural gas production

Source: Central Statistics Office of India (million tonnes)

Crude oil refining Crude oil production Petroleum products Natural gas
(billion cu m)
1970-71
1980-81
1990-91
2000-01
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
34


116


193
206.15
6.82
10.51
33.02
32.43
34.12
33.51
33.69
37.71
18
24
49
96
145
151
180
190
0.65
1.52
12.77
27.86
31.48
31.75
46.51
51.25

Of all types of petroleum products, high speed diesel oil accounted for the maximum share (41%), followed by Motor Gasoline (13.73%), Fuel Oil (10.78%), Naphtha (9.2%). Kerosene (4%) and Aviation Turbine Fuel (5%).

India’s Natural Gas production

  • The estimated reserves of natural gas in India as on March 2011 stood at 1241 billion cubic meters (BCM). According to Oil and Gas Journal, India had approximately 38 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of proven natural gas reserves as of January 2011, world’s 26th largest.
  • United States Energy Information Administration estimates that India produced approximately 1.8 Tcf of natural gas in 2010, while consuming roughly 2.3 Tcf of natural gas.
  • According to a 2011 Oil and Gas Journal report, India is estimated to have between 600 to 2000 Tcf of shale gas resources (one of the world’s largest).
  • Bombay High has estimated reserves of 6.1 billion barrels.

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hydro-power

Source: Central Electricity Authority of India

Year-ending March Mega watts
1971
1981
1991
2001
2011
2014
6,383
11,791
18,753
25,153
37,567
39,788

Notes:

  • Includes small hydro power plants’ 3,000+ MW.
  • The Grand Anicut, Kallanai, located on Cauvery River in Tamil Nadu, is the oldest dam in the world.
  • As of July 2010, India has already built 4,300 dams.
  • India is 6th largest hydro-electricity producer in the world
  • India’s viable hydro potential is about 94,000 MW including small, mini, and micro hydel schemes.

World’s Highest Dams, 2010

Source: US’ International Commission on Large Dams

Name Height (m) above lowest formation
Nurek, Tajikistan
Xiaowan, China
Dixence, Swiss
Inguri, Georgia
Vajont, Italy
Torres, Mexico
Tehri, India
Mauvoisin, Swiss
Laxiwa, China
Lleraso, Colombia
Dernier, Turkey
Mica, Canada
Shushensk, Russia
Ertan, China
La Esmeralda, Colombia
Bhakra, India
300
292
285
272
262
261
261
250
250
250
249
243
242
240
237
236

Note: Tajikstan (Rogun dam) and China is building several dams, which would have heights of 240-310 m.

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wind power

Source: World Wind Energy Association

Nation 2006 2014
China 2,599 114,763
United States 11,603 65,879
Germany 20,622 39,165
Spain 11,630 22,987
India 6,270 22,465
UK 1,963 12,440
Canada 1,460 9,694
France 1,589 9,285
Italy 2,123 8,663
Brazil 237 5,939

India is 12th highest solar power generator in the world at 2.3 GW. Target is 10 GW by 2017.

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nuclear power

Source: International Atomic Energy Agency/ World Nuclear Association

Country Nuclear Electricity capacity
(mega watt)
USA
France
Japan
Russia
South Korea
China
Canada
Ukraine
Germany
Sweden
UK
Spain
Belgium
India
Taiwan
99,081
63,130
42,388
23,643
20,721
17,978
13,538
13,107
12,068
9,474
9,243
7,121
5,927
5,308
5,032

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